V8 Bundled Exec call – and Oracle Program Interface (OPI) calls

Tanel Poder


So, what he hell is that V8 Bundled Exec call which shows up in various Oracle 11g monitoring reports?!

It’s yet another piece of instrumentation which can be useful for diagnosing non-trivial performance problems. Oracle ASH has allowed us to measure what is the top wait event or top SQLID for a long time, but now it’s also possible to take a step back and see what type of operation the database session is servicing. 

I am talking about Oracle Program Interface (OPI) calls. Basically for each OCI call in the client side (like , OCIStmtExecute, OCIStmtFetch, etc) there’s a corresponding server side OPI function (like opiexe(), opifch2() etc). 

It has been possible to trace all the OPI calls with event 10051 as I’ve explained here, but since Oracle 11g this data is also conveniently accessible from ASH views (the various monitoring reports, including SQL Monitoring report also use ASH data for some features).

So, I can write a simple query against ASH, which doesn’t group the samples by wait event or SQL_ID, but just by the general OPI call type (TOP_LEVEL_CALL_NAME column) and also by the SQL command type (using V$SQLCOMMAND in 11.2):  

  2      a.top_level_call#
  3    , a.top_level_call_name
  4    , a.top_level_sql_opcode
  5    , s.command_name
  6    , COUNT(*)
  7  FROM
  8      v$active_session_history a
  9    , v$sqlcommand s
 10  WHERE
 11      a.top_level_sql_opcode = s.command_type
 13      a.top_level_call#
 14    , a.top_level_call_name
 15    , a.top_level_sql_opcode
 16    , s.command_name
 18*     COUNT(*) DESC
 19  /

TOP_LEVEL_CALL# TOP_LEVEL_CALL_NAME     top_op# COMMAND_NAME                     COUNT(*)
--------------- -------------------- ---------- ------------------------------ ----------
             94 V8 Bundled Exec               7 DELETE                              10505
              0                               0                                      4041
             59 VERSION2                      0                                       579
             59 VERSION2                     47 PL/SQL EXECUTE                        377
             59 VERSION2                      3 SELECT                                191
             96 LOB/FILE operations         170 CALL METHOD                            67
             59 VERSION2                    170 CALL METHOD                            66
             94 V8 Bundled Exec               6 UPDATE                                 52
             59 VERSION2                      6 UPDATE                                 41
             59 VERSION2                      7 DELETE                                 36
             94 V8 Bundled Exec               3 SELECT                                 24
             96 LOB/FILE operations          47 PL/SQL EXECUTE                         18
             59 VERSION2                      2 INSERT                                  8
             94 V8 Bundled Exec               1 CREATE TABLE                            5
              0                               3 SELECT                                  3
             59 VERSION2                     15 ALTER TABLE                             1
             96 LOB/FILE operations           0                                         1
             59 VERSION2                     12 DROP TABLE                              1
              5 FETCH                         3 SELECT                                  1
             94 V8 Bundled Exec              12 DROP TABLE                              1

20 rows selected.


Aas you see above, most of the ASH samples in my test database have been created by a DELETE type SQL statement, executed via V8 Bundled Exec type of an OPI call.

So, what is this call about? Let’s explain its name. Look into other call types in the above output. In the bottom you see a FETCH call (fetching from a SELECT type statement). Also there are a few LOB/FILE operations calls, which are used exclusively for accessing LOB data (via LOB locator, bypassing the usual SQL processing layer).

In Oracle 7 you would also see PARSE and EXECUTE calls, but starting from Oracle 8 not anymore. This is because starting from Oracle 8, the OPI layer in database side can accept bundled OCI calls from the client – to reduce the number of network roundtrips. So, basically instead of sending the PARSE and EXEC requests in separate SQL_Net roundtrips (increasing the latency), the OCI client libraries can bundle these requests together and send them to database in one SQL_Net payload. The database server side understands it and is able to extract these separate OPI requests from the bundled packet (in right order) and execute the corresponding OPI function for each separate call. 

Note that this is why you frequently see the kpoal8() function close to the beginning in Oracle server process stack traces (and where I usually start reading them from), this is the function which processes all the OPI requests sent to it in a bundled package. So, whenever there’s a OCIStmtExecute() call extracted from the bundle, the opiexe() function is called in Oracle kernel with appropriate arguments extracted from the same bundle. Whenever we extract an OCIStmtFetch2() call from the bundle, the corresponding opifch2() function is called in the kernel.

Hopefully this explains why is there such a call “V8 Bundled Exec” in Oracle. It just allows to reduce client – server communication latency by allowing to bundle multiple database requests together into a single SQL*Net payload. In other words, it’s just how Oracle works and it’s perfectly normal to see V8 Bundled Exec as the top OPI call type in performnace reports. If you see this OPI call as the top one, then you’d need to drill down into what’s the actual SQLID which consumes the most of the response time (and further breakdown like which wait event and execution plan step takes the most time).

But the ability of breaking down database response time by OPI call becomes much more useful when troubleshooting somewhat more exotic performance problems like LOB access times (where there’s no SQL statement associated with the database call) or other direct OPI calls which are executed without parsing and running a SQL cursor.

For example, have you noticed that the behavior of ROLLBACK command in sqlplus is different from the shorter ROLL command?

When you issue a ROLLBACK, then Oracle will actually send the string “ROLLBACK” to the database as a regular SQL statement (using V8 Bundled Exec), it will be parsed there (with all the latching and shared pool overhead) as regular SQL – and then Oracle realizes that the command in it is a rollback. Then rollback is performed.

But if you issue a ROLL command, then sqlplus understands it and doesn’t send it to the database for parsing like a regular SQL statement. Instead it will send an OCITransRollback() call, which will call the corresponding OPI function directly, bypassing the SQL processing layer completely. Instead of the usual “V8 Bundled Exec” bundle call you would see a “Transaction Commit/Rollback” OPI call as it was called directly, without any SQL statement processing involved. This is why you sometimes see WAIT#0 lines in SQL_Trace, where the waits seem to be associated with some non-existent cursor #0. Whenever the wait happens when the database session is servicing an OPI call which bypasses the SQL processing layer (kks/kkx modules) then the SQL_Trace just shows cursor#0 as the wait’s “owner”.

The same happens when using things like connection.commit() in JDBC, the client does not send a SQL statement with text “commit” into the datbase, but rather will call out the OPI commit function out directly.

So, how many different OPI calls are there? Well, a lot, as you can see from v$toplevelcall (or its underlying x$orafn) in Oracle 11.2:


SQL> SELECT * FROM v$toplevelcall;

--------------- ----------------------------------------------------------------
              2 OPEN
              3 PARSE
              4 EXECUTE
              5 FETCH
              8 CLOSE
              9 LOGOFF
             10 DESCRIBE
             11 DEFINE
             12 COMMIT ON
             13 COMMIT OFF
             14 COMMIT
             15 ROLLBACK
             16 SET OPTIONS
             17 RESUME
             18 VERSION
             20 CANCEL
             21 GET ERR MSG
             23 SPECIAL
             24 ABORT
             25 DEQ ROW
             26 FETCH LONG
             31 HOW MANY
             32 INIT
             33 CHANGE USER
             34 BIND REF POS
             35 GET BIND VAR
             36 GET INTO VAR
             37 BINDV REF
             38 BINDN REF
             39 PARSE EXE
             40 PARSE SYNTAX
             41 PARSE SYNSDI
             42 CONTINUE
             43 ARRAY DESC
             44 INIT PARS
             45 FIN PARS
             46 PUT PAR
             48 START ORACLE
             49 STOP ORACLE
             50 RUN IND PROC
             52 ARCHIVE OP
             53 MED REC STRT
             54 MED REC TABS
             55 MED REC GETS
             56 MED REC RECL
             57 MED REC CANC
             58 LOGON
             59 VERSION2
             60 INIT
             62 EVERYTHING
             65 DIRECT LOAD
             66 UL BUFFER XMIT
             67 DISTRIB XACTION
             68 DESCRIBE INDEXES
             69 SESSION OPS
             70 EXEC w/SCN
             71 FAST UPI
             72 FETCH LONG
             74 V7 PARSE
             76 PL/SQL RPC
             78 EXEC & FCH
             79 XA OPS
             80 KGL OP
             81 LOGON
             82 LOGON
             83 Streaming op
             84 SES OPS (71)
             85 XA OPS (71)
             86 DEBUG
             87 DEBUGS
             88 XA XA Start
             89 XA XA Commit
             90 XA XA Prepare
             91 x/import
             92 KOD OP
             93 RPI Callback with ctxdef
             94 V8 Bundled Exec
             95 Streaming op
             96 LOB/FILE operations
             97 FILE Create
             98 V8 Describe Query
             99 Connect
            100 OPEN Recursive
            101 Bundled KPR
            102 Bundled PL/SQL
            103 Transaction Start/End
            104 Transaction Commit/Rollback
            105 Cursor close all
            106 Failover session info
            107 SES OPS (80)
            108 Do Dummy Defines
            109 INIT V8 PARS
            110 FIN V8 PARS
            111 PUT V8 PAR
            112 TERM V8 PARS
            114 INIT UNTR CB
            115 OAUTH
            116 Failover get info
            117 Commit Remote Sites
            118 OSESSKEY
            119 V8 Describe Any
            120 Cancel All
            121 Enqueue
            122 Dequeue pre 8.1
            123 Object Transfer
            124 RFS op
            125 Notification
            126 Listen
            127 Commit Remote Sites >= V813
            128 DirPathPrepare
            129 DirPathLoadStream
            130 DirPathMiscOps
            131 MEMORY STATS
            132 AQ Prop Status
            134 remote Fetch Archive Log (FAL)
            135 Client ID propagation
            136 DR Server CNX Process
            138 SPFILE parameter put
            139 KPFC exchange
            140 V82 Object Transfer
            141 Push transaction
            142 Pop transaction
            143 KFN Operation
            144 DirPathUnloadStream
            145 AQ batch enqueue/dequeue
            146 File transfer
            147 PING
            148 TSM
            150 Begin TSM
            151 End TSM
            152 Set schema
            153 Fetch from suspended result-set
            154 Key value pair
            155 XS Create Session Op
            156 XS Session RoundtripOp
            157 XS Piggyback Oper.
            158 KSRPC Execution
            159 Streams combined capture/apply
            160 AQ replay information
            161 SSCR
            162 OSESSGET
            163 OSESSRLS
            165 workload replay data
            166 replay statistic data
            167 Query Cache Stats
            168 Query Cache IDs
            169 RPC Test Stream
            170 replay plsql rpc
            171 XStream Out
            172 Golden Gate RPC

151 rows selected.


A lot of calls … special stuff (like DESCRIBE) which will bypass the SQL layer completely (but may in turn invoke further recursive SQL statements through the Recursive Program Interface – RPI).

Ok, time to stop – if you want to learn more, enable SQL trace with waits & binds and event 10051 at level 1 in your test database and try to describe a table or read some LOB columns for example!


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